The tylosin-biosynthetic genes of Streptomyces fradiae

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2001 Sep;79(3-4):229-34. doi: 10.1023/a:1012065300116.


The tylosin-biosynthetic (tyl) gene cluster occupies about 1% of the genome of Streptomycesfradiae and includes at least 43 open reading frames. In addition to structural genes required for tylosin production, the tyl cluster contains three resistance determinants and several regulatory genes. Tylosin production is evidently controlled by pathway-specific and pleiotropic regulators with the likely involvement of y-butyrolactone signalling factors. Accumulation of the polyketide aglycone is controlled by glycosylated macrolides and optimal performance of the complex polyketide synthase enzyme requires the activity of an editing thioesterase.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / biosynthesis*
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics*
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
  • Genes, Bacterial*
  • Multigene Family
  • Streptomyces / genetics*
  • Streptomyces / metabolism*
  • Tylosin / biosynthesis*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Tylosin