New therapeutics for chronic heart failure

Annu Rev Med. 2002;53:59-74. doi: 10.1146/


Traditionally, clinicians have viewed heart failure either as a problem of excessive salt and water retention caused by abnormalities of renal blood flow, or as a hemodynamic problem associated with a reduced cardiac output and excessive peripheral vasoconstriction. Recently, clinicians have begun to adopt a neurohormonal model in which heart failure progresses because of the toxic effects of endogenous biological systems that become activated in heart failure. We review the rationale for existing heart failure therapies and discuss the reasoning behind the development of some emerging therapies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cardiovascular Agents / adverse effects
  • Cardiovascular Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Cytokines / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Cytokines / blood
  • Heart Failure / drug therapy*
  • Heart Failure / etiology
  • Humans
  • Neurotransmitter Agents / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Neurotransmitter Agents / blood
  • Ventricular Dysfunction, Left / drug therapy
  • Ventricular Dysfunction, Left / etiology
  • Ventricular Remodeling / drug effects


  • Cardiovascular Agents
  • Cytokines
  • Neurotransmitter Agents