A novel N-terminally substituted Pro(3) analogue of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) was synthesized and tested for plasma stability and biological activity both in vitro and in vivo. Native GIP was rapidly degraded by human plasma with only 39 +/- 6% remaining intact after 8 h, whereas (Pro(3))GIP was completely stable even after 24 h. In CHL cells expressing the human GIP receptor, (Pro(3))GIP antagonized the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) stimulatory ability of 10(-7) M native GIP, with an IC(50) value of 2.6 microM. In the clonal pancreatic beta cell line BRIN-BD11, (Pro(3))GIP over the concentration range 10(-13) to 10(-8) M dose dependently inhibited GIP-stimulated (10(-7) M) insulin release (1.2- to 1.7-fold; P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). In obese diabetic (ob/ob) mice, intraperitoneal administration of (Pro(3))GIP (25 nmol/kg body wt) countered the ability of native GIP to stimulate plasma insulin (2.4-fold decrease; P < 0.001) and lower the glycemic excursion (1.5-fold decrease; P < 0.001) induced by a glucose load (18 mmol/kg body wt). Collectively these data demonstrate that (Pro(3))GIP is a novel and potent enzyme-resistant GIP receptor antagonist capable of blocking the ability of native GIP to increase cAMP, stimulate insulin secretion, and improve glucose homeostasis in a commonly employed animal model of type 2 diabetes.
©2002 Elsevier Science (USA).