The stress-induced hyperthermia test is a paradigm developed several years ago to model the expression of autonomic hyperactivity in anxiety. Whereas in the classical stress-induced hyperthermia, cohort removal was used, in a recently described modification of the stress-induced hyperthermia model singly housed mice rather than groups of mice were used. The modification of this model can be summarized as follows: rectal temperature is recorded in singly housed animals at two consecutive time-points (T1 and T2) which are interspaced by a defined time-interval (15 min). Since the value at the second temperature-recording exceeds the value of the initial measure it is the difference between these two core-temperatures which reflects stress-induced hyperthermia. In the present study, the stress-induced hyperthermia paradigm, in its modified design, was evaluated in OF1/IC mice. By comparing the effect of various compounds in both the modified as well as the classical (cohort removal) stress-induced hyperthermia paradigm, a very high correlation was found for the pharmacological sensitivity of the two paradigms. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that other anxiolytics, all known to be active in the classical stress-induced hyperthermia paradigm, such as the benzodiazepines chlordiazepoxide (0.3, 1, 3, 10 mg/kg, p.o.), diazepam (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3 mg/kg, p.o.), clobazam (5 or 10 mg/kg, p.o.) and oxazepam (5 or 10 mg/kg, p.o.) as well as the non-benzodiazepines buspirone (7.5 or 15 mg/kg, p.o.) and ethanol (15% or 30%, 10 ml/kg, p.o.), showed a marked reduction in stress-induced hyperthermia in the modified design. New candidate anxiolytics, i.e. the metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor group 2 agonist LY314582 (1 or 10 mg/kg, p.o.; racemic mixture of LY354740 ((2S,4S)-2-amino-4-(4,4-diphenylbut-1-yl)-pentane-1,5-dioic acid), the metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor antagonist MPEP (1, 7.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg, p.o.; 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine) and the neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonist NKP608 (0.01 or 0.1 mg/kg, p.o.; quinoline-4-carboxylic acid [trans-(2R,4S)-1-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-benzoyl)-2-(4-chloro-benzyl)-piperidin-4-yl]-amide) also reduced stress-induced hyperthermia in the modified paradigm clearly indicating anxiolytic-like activity for these compounds. Finally, the effects of the classical benzodiazepine chlordiazepoxide (10 mg/kg, p.o.), in parallel with its effect on stress-induced hyperthermia, were also investigated for its effect on plasma concentrations of the two stress hormones, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone. It was shown that all three parameters were significantly increased 15 min after T1 in vehicle-treated mice whereas the increase was significantly attenuated following pre-treatment with chlordiazepoxide. In conclusion, all the data presented here indicate that the modified version of the stress-induced hyperthermia-paradigm is a valid and interesting alternative to the classical stress-induced hyperthermia test.