Ralstonia solanacearum is a devastating, soil-borne plant pathogen with a global distribution and an unusually wide host range. It is a model system for the dissection of molecular determinants governing pathogenicity. We present here the complete genome sequence and its analysis of strain GMI1000. The 5.8-megabase (Mb) genome is organized into two replicons: a 3.7-Mb chromosome and a 2.1-Mb megaplasmid. Both replicons have a mosaic structure providing evidence for the acquisition of genes through horizontal gene transfer. Regions containing genetically mobile elements associated with the percentage of G+C bias may have an important function in genome evolution. The genome encodes many proteins potentially associated with a role in pathogenicity. In particular, many putative attachment factors were identified. The complete repertoire of type III secreted effector proteins can be studied. Over 40 candidates were identified. Comparison with other genomes suggests that bacterial plant pathogens and animal pathogens harbour distinct arrays of specialized type III-dependent effectors.