This study examines the coexpression of MUC1 mucin and trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) and their relationship to progression of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Immunohistochemistry was performed on tumor and adjacent normal tissue from clear-cell RCC (n = 60) and tissues from normal controls (n = 5) using a set of well-characterized monoclonal antibodies recognizing different epitopes of MUC1 and TFF1. Results of immunohistochemistry were compared with clinical parameters, including tumor grade, tumor size, presence of metastasis, and progression-free survival of patients after surgery. In normal tissue, MUC1 and TFF1 were absent from the normal proximal tubular epithelium but were identified in distal and collecting tubular epithelium. In RCC, increased MUC1 expression positively correlated to tumor progression. MUC1 recognized by HMFG1 was associated with large tumor size (P < .05), distant metastasis (P < .05), and invasion of large veins (P < .05). Expression of the under-glycosylated form of MUC1 recognized by SM3 was found to correlate to time to progression (recurrence, metastasis, or death of patient; P < .001). Expression of TFF1 did not significantly correlate with any prognostic parameters. However, there was a significant correlation (P < .01) between TFF1 and MUC1 expression (HMFG2 epitope) in RCCs. These results are consistent with the following conclusions: (1) MUC1 may be an independent prognostic marker in RCC; (2) TFF1 is frequently coexpressed with MUC1 and may act synergistically; and (3) RCC may originate from distal tubular epithelium.
Copyright 2002 by W.B. Saunders Company