Time-course analysis of root protein profiles was studied by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and silver staining in the model plant Medicago truncatula, inoculated either with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae or with the nitrogen fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti. Protein modifications in relation to the development of both symbioses included down- and upregulations, as well as newly induced polypeptides. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry after trypsin digestion clearly identified one polypeptide induced in nodulated roots as a M. truncatula leghemoglobin. Internal sequencing with a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and database searches confirmed the induction of proteins previously described in root symbioses, and revealed the implication of other proteins. In nodulated roots, one polypeptide was identified as an elongation factor Tu from S. meliloti, while another one could not be assigned a function. In mycorrhizal roots, analyzed proteins also included a protein of unknown function, as well as a glutathione-S-transferase, a fucosidase, a myosin-like protein, a serine hydroxymethyltransferase and a cytochrome-c-oxidase. These results emphasize the usefulness of proteome analysis in identifying molecular events occurring in plant root symbioses.