Pharmepéna-Psychonautics: Human intranasal, sublingual and oral pharmacology of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyl-tryptamine

J Psychoactive Drugs. 2001 Oct-Dec;33(4):403-7. doi: 10.1080/02791072.2001.10399925.


Summarized are psychonautic bioassays (human self-experiments) of pharmepéna--crystalline 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT; O-Me-bufotenine), at times combined with crystalline beta-carbolines (harmaline or harmine). These substances were administered via intranasal, sublingual and oral routes, by way of pharmacological modeling of diverse South American shamanic inebriants (principally the snuffs epéna/nyakwana, prepared from barks of diverse species of Virola.) Intranasal, sublingual and oral psychoactivity of 5-MeO-DMT, and the 1967 Holmstedt-Lindgren hypothesis of the paricá-effect--intranasal potentiation of tryptamines by concomitant administration of monoamine-oxidase-inhibiting (MAOI) beta-carbolines from stems of Banisteriopsis caapi admixed with the snuffs--have been confirmed by some 17 psychonautic bioassays. Salient phytochemical and psychonautic literature is reviewed.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Intranasal
  • Administration, Oral
  • Administration, Sublingual
  • Culture
  • Hallucinogens / administration & dosage
  • Hallucinogens / pharmacology*
  • Harmaline / administration & dosage
  • Harmaline / pharmacology
  • Harmine / administration & dosage
  • Harmine / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Methoxydimethyltryptamines / administration & dosage
  • Methoxydimethyltryptamines / pharmacology*
  • Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors / pharmacology


  • Hallucinogens
  • Methoxydimethyltryptamines
  • Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
  • Harmine
  • Harmaline