By using Western blotting, immunofluorescence and immunogold labeling, a novel alpha-actinin-like protein was found in pollen and pollen tubes of Lilium davidii, a model system for cytoskeleton and Golgi apparatus study of plant. As measured by Western blotting, the molecular mass of the a-actinin-like protein was about 80 kDa. Under confocal laser scanning microscopy after immunofluorescence labeling, the distribution of the alpha-actinin-like protein appeared punctated in the cytoplasm of the pollen and pollen tubes. When double labeled, the protein was co-localized with Golgi 58K protein. In addition, some fraction of the alpha-actinin-like protein was found to co-distribute with F-actin bundles in the pollen tubes. Additional studies with immuno-gold labeling and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the alpha-actinin-like protein bound mainly to the membranes of Golgi-associated vesicles. When the pollen tubes were treated with Brefeldin A (BFA), the a-actinin-like proteins were dispersed into the cytoplasm, and the growth of pollen tubes was inhibited. After BFA was removed, the protein was reversibly recovered on the Golgi apparatus. These results suggest that the novel alpha-actinin-like protein is a BFA-sensitive protein on the membranes of Golgi-associated vesicles, and may participate in Golgi-associated vesicles budding and/or sorting, together with actin microfilaments.