Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is produced in pancreatic islets of Langerhans and released into the circulation after ingestion of a meal. Peripherally administered PP suppresses food intake and gastric emptying. On the other hand, central administration of PP elicits food intake and gastric emptying. Therefore, PP actions on food intake may be, in part, attributable to gastric emptying. PP transgenic mice exhibit decreases in both food intake and gastric emptying rate that were clearly reversed by anti-PP antiserum. PP is an anorexigenic signal in the periphery and an orexigenic signal in the central nervous system.