We investigated the effects of a single oral administration of capsiate, which is found in the fruits of a non-pungent cultivar of pepper, CH-19 Sweet, and has the same structure as capsaicin except for replacement of NH by O in the alkyl chain, on the thermogenesis and fat accumulation in mice. The oxygen consumption and serum adrenalin concentration were higher in both the capsaicin (10 mg/kg-body weight) and capsiate (10 mg/kg-body weight) groups than those in the control group. We also examined the effects of 2 weeks of administration of capsaicin and capsiate on body fat accumulation. Eevery day for 2 weeks administration of capsiate (10, 50 mg/kg-body weight/day) markedly suppressed body fat accumulation as well as capsaicin (10 mg/kg-body weight/day). These results suggest that capsiate promotes energy metabolism and suppresses body fat accumulation as does capsaicin.