The effect of allopurinol (an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase) on oxidative stress, renal dysfunction, and histologic alterations was evaluated during the renal ischemia--reperfusion in uninephrectomized rats. Renal malondialdehyde and serum creatinine levels significantly increased after renal ischemia--reperfusion. However, the pretreatment with allopurinol demonstrated a protector effect in these parameters. Renal ischemia--reperfusion provoked a significant renal damage in the operated group. Tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis were attenuated by allopurinol when given prior to the surgery. In our study, allopurinol had a strong tendency to exert a beneficial effect during renal ischemia--reperfusion in uninephrectomized rats.