SCH 23390: the first selective dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist

CNS Drug Rev. 2001 Winter;7(4):399-414. doi: 10.1111/j.1527-3458.2001.tb00207.x.


SCH 23390, the halobenzazepine (R)-(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5- tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine, is a highly potent and selective dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist with a K(i) of 0.2 and 0.3 nM for the D1 and D5 dopamine receptor subtypes, respectively. In vitro, it also binds with high affinity to the 5-HT2 and 5-HT1C serotonin receptor subtypes. However, the doses required to induce a similar response in vivo are greater than 10-fold higher than those required to induce a D1-mediated response. Previous in vivo pharmacological studies with SCH 23390 have shown it to abolish generalized seizures evoked by the chemoconvulsants: pilocarpine and soman. These studies provide evidence of the potential importance of D1-like dopaminergic receptor mechanisms in facilitating the initiation and spread of seizures. The inference from a majority of studies is that the activation of dopamine D1 receptors facilitates seizure activity, whereas activation of D2 receptors may inhibit the development of seizures. SCH 23390 has also been used in studies of other neurological disorders in which the dopamine system has been implicated, such as psychosis and Parkinson's disease. Apart from the study of neurological disorders, SCH 23390 has been extensively used as a tool in the topographical determination of brain D1 receptors in rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans. In summary, SCH 23390 has been a major tool in gaining a better understanding of the role of the dopamine system, more specifically the D1 receptor, in neurological function and dysfunction.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anticonvulsants / chemistry
  • Anticonvulsants / pharmacology
  • Antipsychotic Agents / chemistry
  • Antipsychotic Agents / pharmacology
  • Antipsychotic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Behavior, Animal / drug effects
  • Benzazepines / chemistry
  • Benzazepines / pharmacology*
  • Benzazepines / therapeutic use
  • Brain / metabolism
  • Brain / physiology
  • Dopamine / metabolism
  • Dopamine Antagonists / chemistry
  • Dopamine Antagonists / pharmacology*
  • Dopamine Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Electroencephalography
  • Humans
  • Huntington Disease / genetics
  • Huntington Disease / metabolism
  • Memory / drug effects
  • Motor Activity / drug effects
  • Parkinson Disease / metabolism
  • Psychotic Disorders / drug therapy
  • Receptors, Dopamine D1 / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Receptors, Dopamine D5
  • Seizures / physiopathology
  • Seizures / prevention & control
  • gamma-Aminobutyric Acid / metabolism


  • Anticonvulsants
  • Antipsychotic Agents
  • Benzazepines
  • DRD5 protein, human
  • Dopamine Antagonists
  • Receptors, Dopamine D1
  • Receptors, Dopamine D5
  • gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
  • Dopamine