Modafinil has been reported to produce a concentration-related suppression of CYP2C9 activity in vitro in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. To determine whether this effect occurs in vivo, the pharmacokinetics of (S)-warfarin was investigated after single oral doses of racemic warfarin (5 mg; COUMADIN) in a placebo-controlled, single-blind, single-period study in 28 volunteers. Subjects received an oral dose of warfarin prior to administration of modafinil (200 mg for 7 days, followed by 400 mg for 21 days) or placebo and they received another after 4 weeks of treatment. Treatment with modafinil did not significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of (S)- or (R)-warfarin relative to placebo. Since (S)-warfarin is predominantly metabolized via CYP2C9, the results indicate that the marked suppression of CYP2C9 activity in vitro does not translate into a similar effect clinically. However, limitations arising from investigation of single doses of warfarin preclude global conclusions about the potential for more subtle interactions after chronic warfarin administration.