The Plasmodium spp. parasites that cause malaria are transmitted to humans by Anopheles spp. mosquitoes. Scientists have now amassed a great body of knowledge about the parasite, its mosquito vector and human host. Yet this year there will be 300-500 million new malaria infections and 1-3 million deaths caused by the disease. We believe that integrated analyses of genome sequence, DNA polymorphisms, and messenger RNA and protein expression profiles will lead to greater understanding of the molecular basis of vector-human and host-parasite interactions and provide strategies to build upon these insights to develop interventions to mitigate human morbidity and mortality from malaria.