The generalized convulsive seizure state induced by daily electrical stimulation of the amygdala in split brain cats

Epilepsia. 1975 Sep;16(3):417-30. doi: 10.1111/j.1528-1157.1975.tb06069.x.


Daily unilateral electrical stimulation of amygdala in forebrain bisected cats provoked the development of the final stage of the kindled convulsion with remarkable rapidity regardless of presence or absence of anterior commissure. The chronological and spatial pattern of propagation of afterdischarge, interictal spike discharge, and clinical manifestations strongly suggest the significant role played by the midbrain reticular formation and possibly other brainstem structures in the progressive electroclinical seizure development. This assumption was supported by the results of a lesion study in which placement of a destructive lesion in the ipsilateral midbrain reticular formation markedly increased the generalized seizure triggering threshold, lateralized the afterdischarge to the stimulated hemisphere when induced with increased intensity stimulation, fragmented clinical seizure manifestations, and failed to produce progression of clinical and electrographic events with prolonged daily stimulation. This is in contrast to the insignificant effect produced by a peduncular lesion. Our findings suggest that vertical (limbic-brainstem), but not horizontal (transhemispheric interlimbic) connection is critically involved in the amygdaloid seizure development while the forebrain commissures may play a role in the development of bisynchronous and bisymmetrical ictal and interictal electrographic and clinical manifestations. Finally, possible differential effect of forebrain bisection depending on developing in contrast with a established (cerebral) hemispheric epileptogenic process is postulated to explain the "facilitatory" effect observed in our series in contrast to the beneficial effects reported on some intractable seizure patients.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amygdala / physiology*
  • Animals
  • Brain / physiology*
  • Cats
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Electric Stimulation
  • Electroencephalography
  • Evoked Potentials
  • Functional Laterality
  • Male
  • Neural Pathways
  • Seizures / etiology*
  • Time Factors