We evaluated the effect of sodium molybdate on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and mitochondrial enzymes in diabetic rats. Diabetic rats showed a significant reduction in the activities of glucose metabolising enzymes like hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycogen synthase and in the level of glycogen. An elevation in the activities of aldolase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose 1,6- bisphosphatase, glycogen phosphorylase and in the level of blood glucose were also observed in diabetic rats when compared to control rats. The activities of mitochondrial enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, NADH-dehydrogenase and cytochrome-C-oxidase were also significantly lowered in diabetic rats. Molybdate administration to diabetic rats reversed the above changes in a significant manner. From our observations, we conclude that administration of sodium molybdate regulated the blood sugar levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Sodium molybdate therapy not only maintained the blood glucose homeostasis but also altered the activities of carbohydrate metabolising enzymes. Molybdate therapy also considerably improved the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, thereby suggesting its role in mitochondrial energy production.