Osteoporosis, with resulting fractures, is a significant problem in patients with advanced COPD. The etiology for the bone loss is diverse but includes smoking, vitamin D deficiency, low body mass index, hypogonadism, sedentary lifestyle, and use of glucocorticoids. Effective strategies to prevent bone loss and/or to treat osteoporosis include calcium and vitamin D, hormone replacement when indicated, calcitonin, and bisphosphonate administration. However, many patients remain undiagnosed until their first fracture because of the lack of recognition of the disease. With an increased awareness by pulmonologists and the increased use of preventive strategies, the impact of osteoporosis on those patients with COPD should decrease.