Botulinum toxin and short-term electrical stimulation in the treatment of equinus in cerebral palsy

Mov Disord. 2002 Jan;17(1):162-9. doi: 10.1002/mds.1282.


Intramuscular botulinum toxin type A (BT-A) has been shown to reduce spasticity and to improve gait in children with cerebral palsy. To determine whether the efficacy of BT-A may be enhanced by electrical stimulation, as suggested in focal dystonia or in adult spastic patients, 12 children with dynamic foot equinus deformity were randomly assigned to two groups in a blinded, clinically controlled trial. Intramuscular BT-A into calf muscles was followed by adjuvant electrical stimulation in Group A (n = 6) but not in Group B (n = 6). Clinical assessment and instrumented gait analysis were performed before and 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. The combined treatment of BT-A and electrical stimulation was not superior to BT-A alone. For all patients, improvement of the clinical and gait variables occurred at 1 and 3 months after BT-A injection.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Botulinum Toxins, Type A / administration & dosage
  • Botulinum Toxins, Type A / therapeutic use*
  • Cerebral Palsy / complications*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Electric Stimulation Therapy / methods*
  • Electromyography
  • Equinus Deformity / complications*
  • Equinus Deformity / drug therapy
  • Equinus Deformity / therapy*
  • Female
  • Gait
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neuromuscular Agents / administration & dosage
  • Neuromuscular Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Random Allocation
  • Severity of Illness Index


  • Neuromuscular Agents
  • Botulinum Toxins, Type A