Evidence-based practice: extending the search to find material for the systematic review

Bull Med Libr Assoc. 2001 Oct;89(4):346-52.


Background: Cochrane-style systematic reviews increasingly require the participation of librarians. Guidelines on the appropriate search strategy to use for systematic reviews have been proposed. However, research evidence supporting these recommendations is limited.

Objective: This study investigates the effectiveness of various systematic search methods used to uncover randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for systematic reviews. Effectiveness is defined as the proportion of relevant material uncovered for the systematic review using extended systematic review search methods. The following extended systematic search methods are evaluated: searching subject-specific or specialized databases (including trial registries), hand searching, scanning reference lists, and communicating personally.

Methods: Two systematic review projects were prospectively monitored regarding the method used to identify items as well as the type of items retrieved. The proportion of RCTs identified by each systematic search method was calculated.

Results: The extended systematic search methods uncovered 29.2% of all items retrieved for the systematic reviews. The search of specialized databases was the most effective method, followed by scanning of reference lists, communicating personally, and hand searching. Although the number of items identified through hand searching was small, these unique items would otherwise have been missed.

Conclusions: Extended systematic search methods are effective tools for uncovering material for the systematic review. The quality of the items uncovered has yet to be assessed and will be key in evaluating the value of the systematic search methods.

MeSH terms

  • Databases, Bibliographic
  • Evaluation Studies as Topic
  • Evidence-Based Medicine*
  • Humans
  • Internet
  • Meta-Analysis as Topic
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic*
  • Review Literature as Topic*
  • United States