The molecular mechanisms of Helicobacter pylori associated tumor development are poorly understood. The spectra of genetic alterations in neoplasms may provide clues to the molecular carcinogenesis of a tumor and may be relevant for the prognosis of the patients. We investigated the p53 mutation pattern and the protein expression of p53, c-erbB2, and c-met in 42 gastric cancers and correlated these alterations with H. pylori infection, histological subtypes and survival of the patients after curative resection. There were no differences in the incidences of the expression of p53, c-erbB2, and c-met in the tumor tissues according to H. pylori infection. Fifteen p53 mutations in 12 (29%) tumors were identified. More p53 mutations were found in patients with positive serology for H. pylori (43% vs 14%). This difference was not significant, but the small sample size may be insufficient to detect a potential statistical difference. There was neither a H. pylori-associated p53 hot-spot codon mutation nor a H. pylori characteristic mutational pattern of p53. Positive lymph nodes (P = 0.0061) and p53 mutations (P = 0.0035) were the only significant bad prognostic markers for survival after curative resection of the gastric cancers in our study. Our study does not indicate a unique molecular mechanism of p53 mutagenesis through H. pylori infection. The fact that p53 mutations were significantly correlated with poor survival of patients after potentially curative resection of gastric cancer may have clinical implications for multimodal therapies.