We evaluated renal functions by urinary biochemical parameters in normotensive pregnancy and preeclampsia. The parameters are expected to be altered resulting from different abnormalities of renal glomeruli and tubules. We chose N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), beta2-microglobulin (beta2MG), total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), urea nitrogen (UN), uric acid (UA), and creatinine (Cr). Urinary excretion of these biochemical parameter concentrations (relative to Cr) was measured simultaneously in first morning fasting urine samples from 27 healthy nonpregnant women (group 1), 32 women with normotensive pregnancies (group 2), and 26 women with preeclampsia (group 3). The average gestational age at entry was 36 weeks. Serum UN and serum UA also were measured. All the ratios were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1. The NAG-to-Cr, TP-to-Cr, and Alb-to-Cr ratios were significantly higher in group 3 than in group 2. In contrast, the UN-to-Cr and UA-to-Cr ratios were significantly lower in group 3 than in group 2. The percent increase in the beta2MG-to-Cr ratio in group 2 relative to that in group 1 was the highest, followed by percent increases in the NAG-to-Cr, TP-to-Cr, Alb-to-Cr, UA-to-Cr, and UN-to-Cr ratios. In contrast, the percent increase in the Alb-to-Cr ratio in group 3 relative to that in group 2 was the highest, followed by percent increases in the TP-to-Cr, NAG-to-Cr, beta2MG-to-Cr, UA-to-Cr, and UN-to-Cr ratios. The percent increases in the NAG-to-Cr and beta2MG-to-Cr ratios rose markedly in normotensive pregnancy, whereas percent increases of the Alb-to-Cr and TP-to-Cr ratios were far greater in preeclampsia than in normotensive pregnancy. Renal tubular damage and reabsorption dysfunction may be impaired markedly even in normotensive pregnancy, and further deterioration in reabsorption dysfunction may be slight in preeclampsia. Renal glomerular permeability of TP and Alb may be enhanced in normotensive pregnancy and markedly enhanced in preeclampsia.
Copyright 2002 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.