We have carried out comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis on archival biopsy material from a series of 30 UK mantle cell lymphomas. The most frequent aberrations were gains of 3q (21 cases), 6p (19 cases), 7q (8 cases), 12p (8 cases), 12q (9 cases) and 17q11q21 (8 cases), and losses of 1p13p32 (10 cases), 5p13p15.3 (9 cases), 6q14q27 (11 cases), 8p (7 cases), 11q13q23 (8 cases) and 13q (18 cases). Nineteen cases (63%) had a common region of amplification at 3q28q29, which was highly amplified in three cases, suggesting the presence of a mantle cell lymphoma (MCL)-related oncogene in this region. There was a minimal common region of deletion at 6q25q26 in nine cases (30%). No MCL-specific locus has previously been identified on chromosome 6 and this region may contain a tumour suppressor gene specifically implicated in the development of this subtype of lymphoma. An increased number of chromosome aberrations, gain of Xq and loss of 17p were all significantly associated with a worse prognosis. A greater understanding of the genetics of mantle cell lymphoma may allow the identification of prognostic factors which will aid the identification of appropriate treatment regimens.