Background and aim of the study: Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is a relatively uncommon but very serious condition. As bacterial colonization of the prosthetic heart valve sewing cuff can be a prelude to the clinical occurrence of PVE, antimicrobial coating of the sewing cuff may be beneficial. The study aims were to examine the antimicrobial activity in vitro and anti-infective efficacy in vivo of prosthetic heart valve sewing cuffs coated with minocycline and rifampin.
Methods: Zones of inhibition by antimicrobial-coated sewing cuffs were assessed in vitro against Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The ability of subcutaneously implanted devices coated with minocycline and rifampin to resist colonization and infection by P. aeruginosa was also examined in a rabbit model.
Results: Antimicrobial-coated sewing cuffs produced zones of inhibition against all tested organisms. Coated devices were significantly less likely than uncoated devices to become colonized (2/24; 8% versus 20/24; 83%; p <0.001) or to cause device-related infection (0/24; 0% versus 18/24; 75%; p <0.001) and device-related abscess (0/24; 0% versus 10/24; 42%; p <0.001) due to P. aeruginosa.
Conclusion: Prosthetic heart valve sewing cuffs coated with minocycline and rifampin provide broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity in vitro, and are anti-infective in vivo against P. aeruginosa. These results encourage the clinical evaluation of these sewing cuffs.