Progression to insulin-requiring diabetes in seronegative prediabetic subjects: the role of two HLA-DQ high-risk haplotypes

Diabetologia. 2002 Jan;45(1):66-76. doi: 10.1007/s125-002-8246-5.


Aims/hypothesis: Most Caucasians with Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus develop an autoimmune form of diabetes known as Type IA diabetes, based on the presence of humoral responses to islet autoantigens. Alleles at the HLA locus account for the strongest susceptibility to this form of diabetes, which requires insulin therapy. Because a number of patients who develop insulin-requiring diabetes are islet autoantibody negative, the HLA class II haplotypes, DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201 and DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302, were evaluated to assess whether they are an independent risk factor for progression to insulin requirement in first-degree relatives of Type I diabetic patients.

Methods: Both HLA-DQ genotyping and islet cell autoantibody assessment (insulin, GAD65, IA-2 autoantibodies and cytoplasmic islet cell antibodies) were evaluated prospectively in 74 relatives of Type I diabetic patients who developed diabetes treated with insulin (prediabetics) and in 426 control subjects who did not develop insulin-requiring diabetes. Based on the presence of DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201 and/or DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302, the number of HLA-DQ high-risk haplotypes was assigned as 0, 1 or 2.

Results: A higher prevalence of 2 HLA-DQ high-risk haplotypes was present in seronegative prediabetic subjects as compared to non-diabetic autoantibody negative first-degree relatives (33.3 % vs 10.1 % respectively; p < 0.05). Moreover, in seronegative relatives who developed insulin-requiring diabetes, the presence of 2 HLA-DQ high-risk haplotypes conferred an increased cumulative risk of developing insulin requirement of 27 % at 12.5 years of follow-up, compared to a risk of 6 % for non-diabetic relatives who were antibody-negative and had 0 or 1 HLA-DQ high-risk haplotypes (Log rank p = 0.01).

Conclusion/interpretation: These data provide evidence for a phenotype, which is associated with the absence of conventional islet autoantibodies at initial screening, while usually remaining seronegative, and the presence of 2 HLA-DQ high-risk haplotypes with progression to clinical Type I diabetes after a prolonged follow-up. Given the fact that in humans the highest risk-conferring locus associated and linked to the disease is the HLA cluster, and that HLA-DQ molecules play a key role in the development of autoimmune diabetes, our observations imply that as yet unidentified immunologic abnormalities could well exist in seronegative relatives at risk of developing clinical diabetes and carrying 2 HLA-DQ high-risk haplotypes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Autoantibodies / blood
  • Child
  • Demography
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / genetics
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / immunology*
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase / immunology
  • HLA-DQ Antigens / genetics*
  • Haplotypes
  • Humans
  • Insulin Antibodies / blood
  • Islets of Langerhans / immunology
  • Isoenzymes / immunology
  • Middle Aged
  • Pennsylvania / epidemiology
  • Prediabetic State / epidemiology
  • Prediabetic State / genetics
  • Prediabetic State / immunology*
  • Prevalence
  • Registries
  • Risk Assessment
  • Time Factors


  • Autoantibodies
  • HLA-DQ Antigens
  • Insulin Antibodies
  • Isoenzymes
  • islet cell antibody
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase
  • glutamate decarboxylase 2