Distribution of alpha1-antitrypsin PI S and PI Z frequencies in countries outside Europe: a meta-analysis

Clin Genet. 2001 Dec;60(6):431-41. doi: 10.1034/j.1399-0004.2001.600605.x.


The objective of the present study was to review published surveys on allelic frequencies S and Z in countries outside Europe to evaluate the validity of the reported data. Studies on the topic, published from 1965 to May 2001, were retrieved using MEDLINE and bibliographic reference consultations. The criteria for the selection of the studies were the following: 1) sample size >or=250 individuals; 2) alpha1-antitrypsin phenotype determination performed by means of crossed antigen-antibody, isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gels, or polymerase chain reaction (PCR); 3) PI type determination performed without any previous screening procedure; 4) S and Z 95% CI of the reported outcomes within the limits of a calculated coefficient of variation. Forty-three out of 85 studies comply with the established criteria for being analysed. Worldwide maps of geographical distributions of PI S and PI Z frequencies have been designed by the authors by adding the data provided by these 43 selected studies to the 70 reported in a recent European meta-analysis.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis

MeSH terms

  • Afghanistan
  • Africa
  • Australia
  • Canada
  • China
  • Gene Frequency*
  • Humans
  • Japan
  • Jordan
  • Korea
  • Malaysia
  • New Zealand
  • United States
  • alpha 1-Antitrypsin / genetics*


  • SERPINA1 protein, human
  • alpha 1-Antitrypsin
  • alpha 1-antitrypsin, S variant