Pediatric stroke is a term that can be used to encompass everything from hypoxic-ischemic injury to the fetal central nervous system, and especially the premature neonate, to bland versus hemorrhagic infarction from arterial or venous causes in the infant and older child. Pediatric stroke is a chronically underrecognized and therefore underdiagnosed problem that may have significant economic implications. The risk factors for stroke in children are numerous and differ from those in adults. However, with adequate workup, the etiology can be identified in about 75% of cases. Cardiac disorders and hemoglobinopathy are the most common causes of ischemic infarction in children, whereas various congenital anomalies of the blood vessels or defects in coagulation or platelet function often are found in children with parenchymal hemorrhage. Magnetic resonance imaging provides a noninvasive method of investigating childhood stroke, aiding in both better diagnosis and management of this problem.