The Burden of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease and the Potential for Reduction by Immunisation

Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2002 Feb;19(2):85-93. doi: 10.1016/s0924-8579(01)00491-5.


Streptococcus pneumoniae causes invasive disease world-wide and in all age groups. The reported incidence varies geographically and is increased in certain population groups. The incidence is highest in children less than 2 years and is also increased in the elderly. Mortality remains substantial even in the developed world despite appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The emergence of penicillin-resistant pneumococci highlights the importance of immunisation as a means to prevent disease. This review discusses the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease, identifies high-risk patients and analyses evidence for vaccine efficacy and cost-effectiveness.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • Humans
  • Immunization*
  • Penicillin Resistance
  • Pneumococcal Vaccines / economics
  • Pneumococcal Vaccines / immunology
  • Pneumococcal Vaccines / therapeutic use
  • Pneumonia, Pneumococcal / economics*
  • Pneumonia, Pneumococcal / epidemiology
  • Pneumonia, Pneumococcal / immunology
  • Pneumonia, Pneumococcal / prevention & control*
  • Risk Factors
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae / immunology
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae / physiology


  • Pneumococcal Vaccines