The causal relationship between the inhibition of antibody production and liver injury induced by single doses of acetaminophen (APAP) was investigated in mice. The liver injury and antibody production were evaluated using the serum transaminase activity and the number of antibody forming cells against sheep red blood cells (SRBC), respectively. The relevance of APAP hepatotoxicity with inhibiting antibody production was elucidated in fasted and fed mice treated with a single oral administration of APAP. In fasted mice, the oral administration of APAP produced serious liver injury, while it was not the case in the fed mice. As the antibody production was measured under these conditions, APAP significantly depressed the antibody production in fed mice as well as in fasted mice. The rate of B220 positive cells in the splenocytes was significantly decreased by APAP administration in both the fasted and fed mice. Splenocytes proliferative responses following mitogenic stimulation with concanavalin A or lipopolysaccharide were inhibited by APAP. Moreover, APAP added directly to the splenocyte culture also inhibited the in vitro antibody-producing response to SRBC. These findings indicate that the APAP-induced depression of antibody production may not be a secondary response to APAP-hepatitis, but may be a primary response to APAP.