Longitudinal behavior and achievement outcomes of traumatic brain injury (TBI) were investigated in 53 children with severe TBI, 56 children with moderate TBI, and 80 children with orthopedic injuries not involving brain insult. Measures of preinjury child and family status and of postinjury achievement skills were administered shortly after injury. Assessments were repeated 3 times across a mean follow-up interval of 4 years. Results from mixed model analysis revealed persisting sequelae of TBI. Recovery of math skills was observed in the severe TBI group but only for children from less stressed families. Social disadvantage in children with TBI predicted more adverse behavioral sequelae and less favorable changes in some outcome measures. The findings suggest that pediatric TBI has long-term effects on behavior and achievement but that postinjury progress is influenced by the family environment.