Repression of transcription by the full-length E2 protein of papillomaviruses (PV) seems to occur when the E2 binding sites and those of positively acting cellular factors overlap. Previously, we showed that RUNX1 (formerly called CBF) binds to the repression-mediating E2 binding site P2 of human PV type 8 (HPV8). By a yeast one-hybrid system we could identify an unknown protein binding also to P2, tentatively called PBF (papillomavirus binding factor). PBF recognizes the sequence CCGG, which represents the 3' half of the E2 binding site just adjacent to the RUNX1 motif. PBF also binds to the repression-mediating E2 BS-1 in BPV1, which is conserved to P2 of HPV8. Point mutations destroying PBF binding to HPV8 P2 and BPV-1 E2 BS-1 in vitro reduce promoter activity in corresponding reporter constructs. Our results suggest that PBF might play a role in transcription of PV genes and in E2-mediated repression.