Characterization of major anthocyanins and the color of red-fleshed Budd Blood orange (Citrus sinensis)

J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Feb 27;50(5):1243-6. doi: 10.1021/jf011205+.


High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array detection was applied for the characterization of anthocyanins in red-fleshed Budd Blood (Citrus sinensis) orange. More than seven anthocyanin pigments were separated within 30 min by using a binary gradient (0.1% H(3)P0(4) in water and 0.1% H(3)PO(4) in acetonitrile) elution on a Prodigy ODS column. Separations by reversed-phase HPLC and semipreparative HPLC on a Prodigy 10-microm ODS Prep column, and acid and alkali hydrolyses were used for identification of anthocyanins. The primary anthocyanins in Budd Blood orange grown in Florida were cyanidin-3-(6"-malonylglucoside) (44.8%) followed by cyanidin-3-glucoside (33.6%). Two other minor pigments were also acylated with malonic acid. Malonated anthocyanins represented the major proportion (>51%) of anthocyanins in Budd Blood orange. Total anthocyanin contents and juice color parameters (CIE L,a,b) were compared with six other Florida-grown blood oranges.

MeSH terms

  • Anthocyanins / analysis*
  • Anthocyanins / chemistry
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods
  • Citrus / chemistry*
  • Food Coloring Agents / analysis*
  • Pigments, Biological / analysis
  • Pigments, Biological / chemistry
  • Species Specificity
  • Spectrophotometry / methods


  • Anthocyanins
  • Food Coloring Agents
  • Pigments, Biological