Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the natural history and pathogenesis of viral encephalitides. The development of PCR has greatly increased our ability to diagnose viral infections of the central nervous system, particularly for herpes and enteroviral infections. Advancing knowledge has led to the recognition that some encephalitides can be reliably prevented by vaccination (eg, Japanese encephalitis and rabies). For other pathogens such as the arboviruses, the focus has been on prevention by vector control. Finally, effective therapy has been established for a very limited number of viral infections (eg, acyclovir for herpes simplex encephalitis). Other potentially useful treatments, such as pleconaril for enteroviral meningoencephalitis are under clinical evaluation. We review current understanding of viral encephalitides with particular reference to emerging viral infections and the availability of existing treatment regimens.