Involvement of receptor activator of NFkappaB ligand and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in bone destruction in rheumatoid arthritis

Bone. 2002 Feb;30(2):340-6. doi: 10.1016/s8756-3282(01)00682-2.


Bone loss represents a major unsolved problem in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The skeletal complications of RA consist of focal bone erosions and periarticular osteoporosis at sites of active inflammation, and generalized bone loss with reduced bone mass. New evidence indicates that osteoclasts are key mediators of all forms of bone loss in RA. TNF-alpha is one of the most potent osteoclastogenic cytokines produced in inflammation and is pivotal in the pathogenesis of RA. Production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and other proinflammatory cytokines in RA is largely CD4(+) T-cell dependent and mostly a result of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion. Synovial T cells contribute to synovitis by secreting IFN-gamma and interleukin (IL)-17 as well as directly interacting with macrophages and fibroblasts through cell-to-cell contact mechanisms. Activated synovial T cells express both membrane-bound and soluble forms of receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL). In rheumatoid synovium, fibroblasts also provide an abundant source of RANKL. Furthermore, TNF-alpha and IL-1 target stromal-osteoblastic cells to increase IL-6, IL-11, and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) production as well as expression of RANKL. In the presence of permissive levels of RANKL, TNF-alpha acts directly to stimulate osteoclast differentiation of macrophages and myeloid progenitor cells. In addition, TNF-alpha induces IL-1 release by synovial fibroblasts and macrophages, and IL-1, together with RANKL, is a major survival and activation signal for nascent osteoclasts. Consequently, TNF-alpha and IL-1, acting in concert with RANKL, can powerfully promote osteoclast recruitment, activation, and osteolysis in RA. The most convincing support for this hypothesis has come from in vivo studies of animal models. Protection of bone in the presence of continued inflammation in arthritic rats treated with osteoprotegerin (OPG) supports the concept that osteoclasts mediate bone loss, providing further evidence that OPG protects bone integrity by downregulating osteoclastogenesis and promoting osteoclast apoptosis. Modulation of the RANKL/OPG equilibrium in arthritis may provide additional skeletal benefits, such as chondroprotection. The nexus between T-cell activation, TNF-alpha overproduction, and the RANKL/OPG/RANK ligand-receptor system points to a unifying paradigm for the entire spectrum of skeletal pathology in RA. Strategies that address osteoclastic bone resorption will represent an important new facet of therapy for RA.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / metabolism*
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / pathology*
  • Glycoproteins / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Osteoclasts / metabolism
  • Osteoclasts / pathology
  • Osteoprotegerin
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism*


  • Glycoproteins
  • Osteoprotegerin
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor
  • TNFRSF11B protein, human
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha