[Risk factors associated to tuberculosis patients with positive sputum microscopy]

Gac Sanit. 2001 Nov-Dec;15(6):506-12. doi: 10.1016/s0213-9111(01)71613-5.
[Article in Spanish]


Objective: The main factor responsible for producing new cases of tuberculosis by exogen transmission is the existence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the sputum of tuberculosis patients. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated to positive smear tuberculosis cases in Lleida (Spain).

Methods: We studied new cases of tuberculosis over the period 1992-1998. The variables considered were: age, gender, coinfection with HIV, injection drug use (IDU), consumption of alcohol, existence of caverns in thorax X-ray, and laboratory results of direct smear examination. We calculated the incidence rates for 100,000 persons-year. The association between the dependent variable case of tuberculosis with positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis smear and the remaining independent variables were assessed obtaining odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) (crude cOR and adjusted aOR by non conditional logistic regression).

Results: We detected 905 new cases of tuberculosis. The rates in the period 1992-1998 decreased from 38.8 to 30.8. 44.9% of cases (n = 406) presented a positive direct smear. There was a positive association between the risk of being a positive smear patient and having caverns in thorax x-ray (aOR = 6.8; 95% CI, 4.8-95), being male (aOR = 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.6) and consuming alcohol (aOR = 1.6; 95% CI,1.1-2.3) and this risk was significant lower in those under 15 years old (aOR = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.5), and coinfection with HIV (aOR = 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.9).

Conclusions: HIV infection implies a reduced impact in endemecity of tuberculosis. Study of contacts and the implementation of directly observed treatment must be considered not only for coinfected HIV cases and IDU but also for adult males, especially those who consume alcohol, particularly when they have caverns.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology
  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / transmission
  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications
  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cohort Studies
  • Confidence Intervals
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / complications
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis / isolation & purification
  • Odds Ratio
  • Radiography, Thoracic
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Spain / epidemiology
  • Sputum / microbiology
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / diagnosis
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / diagnostic imaging
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / epidemiology*
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / transmission