Sodium molybdate was administered orally to adult male rat at dose level of 10, 30, and 50 mg kg body weight (5 days per week) for 60 days. At higher dose levels significant decrease in absolute and organ-to-body weight ratios of testes, epididymides, seminal vesicles and ventral prostate was observed. The sperm abnormality, associated with decrease in sperm motility and sperm count was also observed. Significant alterations in the activities of marker testicular enzymes, viz. sorbitol dehydrogenase (decreases), lactate dehydrogenase (increases) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (increases) associated with histopathological changes in testes was also observed. Accumulation of molybdenum in testes, epididymides and seminal vesicles was also observed. The study reveals that the oral ingestion of molybdenum may affect the histoarchitecture of testes and sperm morphology. The testicular and spermatotoxic changes may be responsible for observed male mediated developmental toxic effects.