Interfacility transport of pediatric and neonatal patients for advanced or specialty medical care is an integral part of our medical delivery system. Assessment of current services and planning for the future are imperative. As part of this process, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Section on Transport Medicine held the second National Pediatric and Neonatal Transport Leadership Conference in Chicago in June 2000. Ninety-nine total participants, representing 25 states and 5 international locations, debated and discussed issues relevant to the developing specialty of pediatric transport medicine. These topics included: 1) the role of the medical director, 2) benchmarking of neonatal and pediatric transport programs, 3) clinical research, 4) accreditation, 5) team configuration, 6) economics of transport medicine in health care delivery, 7) justification of transport teams in institutions, and 8) international transport/extracurricular transport opportunities. Insights and conclusions from this meeting of transport leaders are presented in the consensus statement.