The evolutionary history of effectors downstream of Cdc42 and Rac

Genome Biol. 2002;3(2):REVIEWS0002. doi: 10.1186/gb-2002-3-2-reviews0002. Epub 2002 Jan 14.


Cdc42 and Rac--ancient, highly conserved, small GTPases--mediate extracellular signals, triggering changes in transcription and in the actin cytoskeleton. Although dozens of proteins act downstream of these GTPases, a comparison of effector proteins from evolutionarily diverse organisms suggests that six groups of proteins serve as the core machinery for signaling from Cdc42 and Rac.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Evolution, Molecular*
  • Humans
  • Signal Transduction / genetics
  • cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein / genetics*
  • rac GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics*


  • cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein
  • rac GTP-Binding Proteins