Dimebon, a Russian-made drug, inhibited toxic effects of beta -amyloid on cultured neurons. Excessive accumulation of beta-amyloid in the brain is characteristic of Alzheimer dementias. Antialzheimer preparations tacrine and dimebon improve survival of cerebellar granule cells during long-term incubation with Abeta25-35, the neurotoxic fragment of beta-amyloid. Both preparations can block potential-dependent Ca(2+) entry into neurons by about 20%, which is explained by their selective action on L-type Ca(2+) channels. It was assumed that the neuroprotective effect of dimebon and tacrine against Abeta25-35 partially depends on inhibition of potential-dependent Ca(2+) entry.