To characterize the immune response to Moraxella catarrhalis after exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pre- and postexacerbation serum and sputum supernatant samples obtained during 21 exacerbations in 18 patients were studied, using the homologous infecting isolates. New serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) detected by whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed after 12 (57.1%) of 21 exacerbations. Analysis of serum samples with flow cytometry, which detects antibodies that are exclusive to epitopes on the bacterial surface, revealed that 5 (23.8%) of the 21 exacerbations were associated with the development of new serum IgG to surface epitopes. Three of these serum samples and 2 other serum samples contained new IgG directed at lipooligosaccharide. Flow cytometry revealed that new mucosal IgA to surface-exposed epitopes of the infecting isolate developed in sputum supernatants after 42% of exacerbations. Therefore, adults with COPD develop variable humoral immune responses to M. catarrhalis after exacerbations, including new serum IgG and new mucosal IgA to epitopes on the bacterial surface.