Influence of food intake and formulation on the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of bosentan, a dual endothelin receptor antagonist

J Clin Pharmacol. 2002 Mar;42(3):283-9. doi: 10.1177/00912700222011300.


The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of food intake on the pharmacokinetics and metabolism as well as the relative bioavailability of bosentan. Sixteen healthy male subjects were treated in a randomized, four-way, crossover design with single oral doses of 125 mg bosentan, given as one tablet (with or without food), two tablets of 62.5 mg (with food), and a suspension (without food). The pharmacokinetic parameters of bosentan (and also three of its metabolites) were very similar after the four treatments: geometric means for Cmax and AUC0-infinity, ranged from 1.3 to 1.6 microg/ml and from 7.8 to 8.9 microg x h/ml, respectively, and median t(max) from 3.0 to 4.0 hours. The bioavailability of the 125 mg tablet relative to that of the suspension, both given fasted, was 102%. In the presence of food, Cmax and AUC0-max increased by 22% and 10%, respectively, whereas the two 62.5 mg tablets were bioequivalent to the 125mg tablet, both under fed conditions. The pharmacokinetics of the metabolites was independent of the treatment administered. In conclusion, bosentan bioavailability from the newly developed 125 mg tablet formulation is similar to that of the suspension, and food intake does not influence its pharmacokinetics to a clinically relevant extent.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Antihypertensive Agents / adverse effects
  • Antihypertensive Agents / blood
  • Antihypertensive Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Area Under Curve
  • Bosentan
  • Chemistry, Pharmaceutical
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Dietary Fats / pharmacokinetics
  • Eating / physiology*
  • Endothelin Receptor Antagonists*
  • Fasting / metabolism
  • Food-Drug Interactions / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Receptors, Endothelin / physiology
  • Sulfonamides / adverse effects
  • Sulfonamides / blood
  • Sulfonamides / pharmacokinetics*


  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Dietary Fats
  • Endothelin Receptor Antagonists
  • Receptors, Endothelin
  • Sulfonamides
  • Bosentan