Objective: To investigate the expression and activity of PPARgamma in human synovial fibroblasts and the effects of PPARgamma agonists on the expression of MMP-1. The molecular mechanisms by which PPARgamma agonists modulate MMP-1 expression were also examined.
Methods: PPARgamma expression and activity were measured using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and transient transfection assays. Human synovial fibroblasts were cultured with IL-1beta in the absence or presence of PPARgamma activators, and the expression and production of MMP-1 were evaluated by Northern blot and ELISA, respectively. The effect of 15d-PGJ(2) on MMP-1 promoter activation was analysed in transient transfection experiments, while electrophoretic mobility shift assays were performed to study the binding activity of the transcription factor AP-1.
Results: PPARgamma was expressed and transcriptionally functional in human synovial fibroblasts. PPARgamma activators (15d-PGJ(2) and BRL 49653) inhibited IL-1beta-induced MMP-1 synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, both activators inhibited IL-1-induced MMP-1 mRNA expression. Activation of the human MMP-1 promoter was also attenuated by 15d-PGJ(2), indicating that the inhibitory effect of 15d-PGJ(2) occurs at the transcriptional level. Interestingly, 15d-PGJ(2) reduced both basal and IL-1beta-induced AP-1 binding activity.
Conclusions: These data indicate that PPARgamma agonists inhibit MMP-1 gene expression by transcriptional mechanisms, and suggest that they may be useful in reducing joint tissue destruction.
Copyright 2002 OsteoArthritis Research Society International.