Pancreatic cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Nearly every person diagnosed with pancreatic cancer will die from it, usually in <6 mo. Familial clustering of pancreatic cancers is commonly recognized, with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern in approximately 10% of all cases. However, the late age at disease onset and rapid demise of affected individuals markedly hamper collection of biological samples. We report a genetic linkage scan of family X with an autosomal dominant pancreatic cancer with early onset and high penetrance. For the study of this family, we have developed an endoscopic surveillance program that allows the early detection of cancer and its precursor, before family members have died of the disease. In a genomewide screening of 373 microsatellite markers, we found significant linkage (maximum LOD score 4.56 in two-point analysis and 5.36 in three-point analysis) on chromosome 4q32-34, providing evidence for a major locus for pancreatic cancer.