Blood Glucose Awareness Training in Dutch Type 1 diabetes patients. Short-term evaluation of individual and group training

Diabet Med. 2002 Feb;19(2):157-61. doi: 10.1046/j.1464-5491.2002.00682.x.


Aims: The aims of the present study were: (i) to evaluate the effects of a Dutch translation and adaptation of Blood Glucose Awareness Training (BGAT-III) on blood glucose (bg) perception, glycaemic control, and decisions not to drive or to raise the bg during hypoglycaemia; (ii) to compare the effects of individual and group BGAT.

Methods: Fifty-nine patients with Type 1 diabetes participated in BGAT in either a group or an individual setting. Before and after BGAT, 39 (66%) of them completed 30-70 measurements on a hand-held computer (hhc). During every measurement, they estimated their bg, indicated whether they would drive or raise their bg on the basis of their estimation, and then measured their bg.

Results: Individual and group BGAT did not have significantly different effects (P = 0.35-0.98). Overall, BGAT did not significantly affect bg perception (P = 0.11-0.65). Before BGAT patients recognized a mean of 32% of their hypoglycaemic episodes, after BGAT a mean of 39% (P = 0.12). After BGAT, patients more often decided not to drive when their bg was low (P = 0.03). They tended to decide more often to raise their bg during hypoglycaemia (P = 0.09).

Conclusions: The effects of BGAT were smaller than expected. Possible reasons for this negative outcome may be the adapted version of BGAT (shorter in duration), a lack of statistical power, or a difference between American and European samples in their reaction to BGAT.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Automobile Driving
  • Awareness / physiology*
  • Blood Glucose / analysis*
  • Decision Making
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / therapy*
  • Educational Measurement
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia / diagnosis*
  • Hypoglycemia / diagnosis*
  • Netherlands
  • Patient Education as Topic*
  • Perception
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Self Care


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A