HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) genotypes were obtained from 13 patients treated with stavudine. No previously-reported mutations indicative of stavudine resistance were found in these patients and no novel mutations occurred in more than two patients. One patient, treated with stavudine for 1 month and treated previously with zidovudine, zalcitabine and lamivudine, carried a mutation at codon 75 of the RT (V75M). A chimeric virus, including the patient's RT sequence from codon 25 to codon 220, which carried the resistance mutations M41 L, D67N, T69D, K70R, L210W and T215Y in addition to V75M, displayed reduced susceptibility to multiple nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs). Removal of V75M from this RT background resulted in a return of susceptibility to didanosine and lamivudine. Our data are in agreement with previous studies demonstrating the rarity of stavudine resistance mutations in stavudine-treated patients. However, we describe a new set of mutations, found in the RT of a heavily-treated patient, that can confer reduced susceptibility to multiple NRTIs. These results underscore the importance of increased vigilance for possible multiple-drug resistance in patients who have been heavily treated with NRTIs.