Craniofacial anthropometry in a Turkish population

Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2002 Mar;39(2):208-18. doi: 10.1597/1545-1569_2002_039_0208_caiatp_2.0.co_2.


Objective: To present norms and demonstrate the anthropometric variations in fronto-occipital circumference, inner and outer canthal distances, near and distant [far] anatomical interpupillary distance, canthal index, and circumference-interorbital index across age and sex in urban Turkish subjects.

Participants: Three thousand four hundred forty-eight subjects (1852 male, 1596 female) aged 7 to 40 years were included in this study.

Methods: Three age groups were studied: children aged 7 to 15 years, young adults aged 16 to 25 years, and adults aged 26 to 40 years. Mean values for each measured parameter were determined at each age between 7 and 25 years. Subjects were also divided into nine age subgroups to observe the change of each parameter with advancing age.

Results: The fronto-occipital circumference and outer canthal distance of males was significantly (p <.001) wider than females in all age groups. The near and distant interpupillary distances of male subjects were, on average, wider than the female subjects with greater differences with advancing age. Across all subjects aged 7 to 40 years, the mean of all measured parameters and calculated indexes of men and boys was significantly different from girls and women (p <.001). The mean for interpupillary distances in our study in both sexes were found to be similar to Arabian, Hong Kong, and British children; larger than those of Chinese, Black, Indian, and Caucasians; and smaller than those of Mexican children and a mixed European population.

Conclusion: This study clearly shows the anthropometric variation for fronto-occipital circumference, inner canthal distance, outer canthal distance, near and distant interpupillary distance, canthal index, and circumference-interorbital index with age. These developmental data and the normal values of these measurements in healthy subjects are useful for dysmorphologists in the early identification of some craniofacial syndromes, hyper- and hypotelorism, and congenital or posttraumatic telecanthus and of planning surgical intervention. We suggest that the comparison of craniofacial dimensions of a patient must be performed with normal standards specific for age as well as sex and race.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Cephalometry*
  • Child
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Eye / anatomy & histology
  • Face / anatomy & histology*
  • Female
  • Frontal Bone / anatomy & histology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Occipital Bone / anatomy & histology
  • Orbit / anatomy & histology
  • Reference Values
  • Sex Factors
  • Skull / anatomy & histology*
  • Statistics as Topic
  • Turkey
  • Urban Population