Purpose: To discover whether the spatial distribution of spike sources determined by magnetoencephalography (MEG) provides reliable information for planning surgery and predicting outcomes in pediatric patients with lesional extrahippocampal epilepsy.
Methods: We retrospectively studied 12 children with extrahippocampal epilepsy secondary to cortical dysplasia (CD), tumor, or porencephalic cyst. We compared interictal MEG spike source locations and somatosensory evoked fields derived from equivalent-current dipole modeling with intraoperative or extraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG).
Results: MEG spike sources were found in proximity to the lesion in all patients and extended from lesions in five patients with CD. Marginal spike sources were noted in three patients with tumors, one patient with a cyst, and one with CD, and extramarginal sources in three patients with tumors. Three patients with tumors underwent lesionectomy only; two had further cortical excisions. One patient with CD underwent lesionectomy only, three had lesionectomy and cortical excisions, and two had lesionectomy and multiple subpial transection. Asymmetric MEG spike sources correlated with ECoG findings in all patients. Residual epileptiform discharges on postexcisional ECoG corresponded to spike sources in three patients with tumors and one patient with a cyst. Eleven patients have been seizure free for 1-6 years (mean, 4 years). One patient had residual seizures after incomplete excision of right temporal CD.
Conclusions: MEG delineated asymmetric epileptogenicity surrounding lesions and the eloquent cortex. Complete tumor resection produced favorable outcomes despite residual postexcisional ECoG spikes and extramarginal MEG spike sources. CD characterized by clusters of MEG spike sources within and extending from lesions seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be removed to prevent seizures.