Mathematical methods are of central importance in the new technologies of radiographic and radioisotopic image reconstruction. The most important procedures are classified as Back-projection, iterative, and analytical (Two-dimensional Fourier, Filtered Back-projection). Back-projection played an important historical role but is no longer used because of sizable artifacts. Analytical methods excel in speed and accuracy when a large number of projections are available and are extensively used in x-ray imaging. Iterative reconstruction is more attractive when the number of views is limited, if noise is significant, and if additional factors, e.g., gamma-ray attenuation, are present. For these reasons, iterative methods are widely used in radioisotope imaging.