Effects of Gender on the Renin-Angiotensin System, Blood Pressure, and Renal Function

Curr Hypertens Rep. 2002 Apr;4(2):143-51. doi: 10.1007/s11906-002-0039-9.


Recent studies have identified key gender differences in cardiovascular function, renal hemodynamics, and the renin-angiotensin system. Extensive epidemiologic evidence has shown a clear gender difference in cardiovascular and renal disease progression, whereby female sex appears to be protective. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unknown, but likely reflect the aforementioned sex differences in common pathophysiologic pathways. This review focuses on studies examining sex differences in these underlying pathways, which together may provide a plausible mechanism for the gender disparity in clinical outcomes.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Pressure / physiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / physiopathology
  • Female
  • Hemodynamics / physiology
  • Humans
  • Kidney / blood supply*
  • Kidney / physiology*
  • Male
  • Renin-Angiotensin System / physiology*
  • Sex Factors