Oxidative stress in blood vessels and the kidney in hypertension can be induced by diverse vasoconstrictor mechanisms, including blockade of nitric oxide synthase and activation of angiotensin II type I receptors and thromboxane receptors. It can cause vasoconstriction via bioinactivation of nitric oxide, and by nitric oxide synthase independent mechanisms that include increased generation of endothelin-1 and the effects of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide on vascular smooth muscle cells. Oxidative stress can accompany hypertension in many models including the spontaneously hypertensive rat, the angiotensin II-infused rat, renovascular hypertension, the deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt model, and obesity-related hypertension. In the kidney, NADPH oxidase-generating superoxide anion is expressed in the vasculature, interstitium, juxtaglomerular apparatus, and the distal nephron. Much progress has been made in defining the pathways that intervene between agonist stimulation of blood vessels and reactive oxygen species-mediated contractile and renal functional responses in animal models in hypertension.